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搭建语言平台,帮助学生学习英语词汇

文章来源: 作者:方莉莉 发布时间:2014年05月30日 点击数: [添加收藏]

              搭建语言平台,帮助学生学习英语词汇

      ---关于在课本文本学习后生成新语篇,帮助词汇教学的策略探讨

英语组 方莉莉

【摘要】 随着教育教学改革的不断深入,越来越多的专家学者关注如何在高中  英语教学中实现词汇的有效教学。如何把复杂,枯燥的词汇教学变得生动、有趣、吸引学生又不脱离实际,确保有效性,成为语言研究者以及我们这些高中英语教师不断探索的一个热点议题。本文中,笔者根据自己在教学实践中的尝试和观察,总结了一个在阅读文本教学后,词汇教学的方法;并对该方法的优势和使用方法作了具体分析。希望能抛砖引玉,使更多人能够提出更多、更有效的方法。

【关键词】词汇教学,有效,语篇,词汇,词块,课本文本,NSEFC教材

 

一:背景

     英语词汇教学,在整个英语教学及教学评估中起着至关重要的作用。《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》(以下简称“新课标”)在语言知识八级目标中明确指出:学生应具备以下词汇应用能力:1.运用词汇理解和表达不同的功能、意图和态度等;2.运用词汇描述比较复杂的事物、行为和特征,说明概念等;3.学会使用3000个单词和400—500个习惯用语或固定搭配。2012年浙江省新课程高考英语考试说明中也要求考生能掌握并运用所学词汇(词汇量2800个左右)。不仅如此,一定的词汇量更是学生听、说、读、写等语言基本技能和“用英语获取和处理信息的能力;用英语分析问题和解决问题的能力以及批判性思维能力”(新课标)的基础所在。

     但在实际教学过程中,词汇教学的有效性不容乐观。很多教师因为教材容量大,教学任务重,又急于追求词汇教学的短效性,在教学中不可避免地出现了下述几种误区。1. 脱离文本,没有语篇作为依托,导致学生机械记忆,词汇教学有效性受挫。2. 语言情景设置不合理,脱离学生实际,导致学习效果下降。3. 过多强调词汇的重要性,对词汇做过多的讲解,配以铺天盖地的词汇练习,使学生对词汇学习产生排斥厌倦心理,最终适得其反。

    有没有一种好办法,能够兼顾到上述问题,但又能被学生接受?正是在这种背景下,笔者尝试了此法。在文本阅读之后,把原来文本中词汇的单纯讲授,机械记忆与学生喜欢的,有兴趣的或者有话可说的文本结合,以翻译为依托,实现语言的有效输出,最终呈现在学生的作业本上,使各个层次的学生都能受益。

 

二、生成新语篇,实现词汇教学的优势

    “词汇教学要坚持词不离句、句不离文的原则,把词汇放到典型的语篇中讲解”,“这既有利于学生在英语语言实践中正确运用所学词汇,又有利于他们养成英语思维的习惯”(李秀文,2009)。本文中所涉及的语篇主要是指由教师根据学生所学文本词汇,汇编而成的新文本。与教学文本相比,具有语言要点集中,文字表达更为简练,并且话题是学生所熟悉的或者容易被接受产生共鸣的特点。因此学生在课堂内,会表现出更多的兴趣。在教学设计的时候,笔者采用的是让学生小组讨论和翻译结合的方法,学生的参与面也能得到保证。而笔者最想分享的优势是该方法可以帮助教师实现多重教学目标。

  (一)提高英语语篇谋篇和写作的能力

    笔者曾有一次教授自编教材“Less anger, better life”。该文是一篇讲述控制愤怒的情绪可以提高我们的生活质量的美文。行文思路非常清晰。用到了很多类似“first, second, finally,besides, however,next”等等连接词。文章的每段都可以找到中心句。因此,在分析了该篇文章的结构和语言后,给学生观看了相关愤怒控制的视频,《杜拉拉升职记》,并布置了以下任务。根据黑板上所给出的关键词块和讨论提纲,以杜拉拉的身份,做一个口头presentation, 并且课后写一篇作文。(参考关键词及提纲:)

    take a deep breath/ tell the other people to leave or excuse yourself to leave/involve yourself in the following activities: listen to music/play ball games/do sports/turn to a psychological doctor…

    There are many things we can do to control anger. For example,…Besides/in addition,…Meanwhile,…Hopefully, every one of us can relieve ourselves from anger and live a better life.

    学生参与非常积极,presentation部分虽然有表达错误,但是层次还是非常基础的。文章中出现的几个重要词汇 take a deep breath, excuse yourself to, involve yourself in 也得到了相应体现。不少学生在此次作业中得到了一个很不错的作文分数。

(二)提高英语应用文体赏读和模仿能力

    “情景在语言的运用中起着很大作用,情景可以帮助学生更好地理解文章内容,感悟文章的独特表达方式,促进语言知识的学习”(赖朝晖,2011)。

在讲授NSEFC教材选修6 Unit 5 Using language时,在分析完天池之后,请学生用文中所学词汇,为杭州撰写一篇形象宣传页。内容如下(画线部分要求学生填写,也是本课中需要掌握的重点词汇),并在课后诵读该文。

    Hangzhou is the capital of Zhejiang Province and it used to be the ancient capital of six dynasties in Chinese history. The city is very beautiful and is home to a diversity of foods and souvenirs, like Longjing tea. Besides, it offers a lot of famous tourist attractions, among which are the West Lake that arouses the greatest appreciation.

    The West Lake is 60 square kilometers in size and has now become a hot spot for tourists both at home and abroad. When you arrive there, you will be awarded with its picturesque landscape and by its cultural heritage as well. It takes at least 2 hours to cover all the sights but you’ll never be disappointed. The West Lake has a gift for keeping people alive with its wonderful ten views. Try to visit all of them. The scenery varies from view to view and the tickets for each view vary from5 to 20 yuan.

    There are many stories concerning the West Lake. One of them is the White Snake Legend. Bai Suzhen, actually a white snake and a boy Xuxian on a rainy day met on Duanqiao Bridge, one of the ten views. Bai borrowed an umbrella from Xu who she loved. Later they got married but experienced some misfortune later.

    If you have the intension to visit there, don’t forget to take a camera and you are guaranteed to enjoy the sights in their natural state.

    通过该篇文章,学生基本了解到本课中的重点词汇,也体会了说明文平实、客观的文风。如能长期坚持,相信在学生日后的阅读中不无裨益。而本文在编写当中也体现了高中书面表达所必须的连贯、中心句、分段等要素,这些对学生都有潜移默化的影响。

(三)有助于学生正面情感的培养。

     高中英语课程特别强调要让学生“形成健全的情感、态度、价值观,为未来发展和终身学习奠定良好的基础。”(新课标)因此,高中教师在教学中,应适时地对学生进行情感教育,让学生形成积极、乐观、不怕困难的价值观。例如笔者所收录的NSEFC教材选修6 Unit 1阅读后的一篇供学生学习、翻译的文章。(画线部分为本课中需要学生重点掌握的词汇)

I met him in the flesh by coincidence and I have much faith in him. He is quite different from those referred to a great deal by the teachers. He always can’t look at the world as it is. Consequently, I attempt to convince him that the aim of life is to enjoy the life but not the opposite. How I wish he could break away from the old thinking style and adopt a positive attitude towards life. That is, I want to tell him that if I were him, I would concentrate more on the bright side of life, valuing what I have possessed and facing all the challenges in life smilingly.

    在这篇文本中,作者就在使用语言的基础上,带给学生强烈的感受,一定要对生活持乐观的态度。

(四)响应词块教学的概念,词汇教学更科学

    所谓词块,是指有两个或两个以上所构成的一个多词项(multi-word item),例如上述例子中is home to, convince…that…, break away from, that is, have a gift for 等等都可称为词块。词块通常在语义或是语法概念上,是个不可分割的整体。很多学生单词已经背得滚瓜烂熟,可是一说到应用,就脑子一片空白了。究其原因,还是没有把单词“词块化”,把词块“语篇化”。所以,采用在新生文本中,学习词汇的方法无疑比传统的词汇教学要更科学,更有效。

 

三. 如何编写新文本,供学生欣赏和学习

    有些教师认为这种文本编写对教师要求太高,太费时。其实只要我们做有心人,多观察,对教材仔细分析,经常关注社会,关注生活中的美好。要编出一份适合学生的又与我们的教材息息相关的文本并非难事。

    (一) 根据课文内容,概括改写。

   “复述课文不仅可以帮助学生更好地理解课文内容,熟记重点词汇,而且可以帮助学生提高与语言表达能力”.(董越君 2011)。同样,充分利用课文文本,对文本进行剖析,然后在此基础上对文章进行改写不只加深学生对文本的理解,并且在新文本的生成过程中欣赏和学习英语词汇。如NSEFC教材选修七Unit 5阅读课,Keep It Up, Xie Lei Chinese Student Fitting in Well,对文章进行挖掘,其实讲述的就是海外求学的不利和有利之处。针对这一点,我们可以对全文进行概括,创作如下新文本,请学生翻译。以下是学生小组讨论,一起翻译过后,学生最终上交的翻译稿:(画线部分为课文重点词汇,词块。)

    Nowadays, too many people went abroad every year. When they say goodbye to their motherland and board a plane for a foreign country, they are actually heading for a whole new life. Surely/ Evidently, there is a long way for them to go.

    First of all, it takes up too much concentration to get used to the new surroundings, so it is highly recommended that they make good preparations before applying for a degree course and that they choose to board with a host family, which will give them more chances to learn about the culture.

    Besides, studying abroad is different from that in China. Therefore, to fit in with the new life quickly, many students are usually so occupied with work that they lack time for social activities. Consequently, it’s important to have a balance between study and a social life.

    As far as studying abroad is concerned, students deserve to be encouraged in life and study as well/in life as well as study. Only when they keep up high spirits in both will they feel at home and stay in comfort.

    又如NSEFC教材选修8 Unit 4 Pygmalion Act One, Fateful Meeting一课,是个简化的剧本,笔者概括了其主要内容,编写下文,让学生找出课文中的词汇,词块进行填空。

With the rain ____________ and cab whistle blowing ______________, many people were _____________________ the rain, among whom are Eliza selling flowers and Professor Higgins ______________ of what people were saying for further study. Eliza took Mr. Higgins ______ a policeman ____________and argued she had done nothing wrong. Mr. Higgins, an expert phonetics, __________ Eliza that if she could be educated by him for three months he would pass her __________a duchess or she would be _____________ to the gutter to ________________. This interested Eliza so she asked Mr. Higgins to teach her. Meanwhile, Higgins’ friend Pickering offered to make a bet with him. Though ___________ to take the task at first, Higgins finally accepted it. The bet finally __________ the success in changing Eliza into an upper class lady with great efforts and perhaps __________ luck. Eliza finally changed her fate. So __________ Eliza hadn’t met Higgins?

(参考答案:pouring, in all directions, sheltering/hiding from, making note/taking down, for, in disguise, convinced, off as, condemned, the end of her day, hesitating , ended in , a bit of , What if)

(二)励志类视频,篇章引入课堂后,教师指导改写

    我们的教材中不乏励志的故事,小说。而我们平时也可以通过网络,媒体,报纸等来源获取这类励志类故事,视频,让学生欣赏后,改编成新的语言文本。

笔者在NSEFC教材选修七Unit 1阅读Mrty’s Story,引入了另一残疾人Nick Vujicic(力克),Nick 没有手也没有脚,却有着非凡的意志力,他的演讲使无数人动容。笔者在课文文本分析的最后,和学生一起欣赏了这段视频,在情感教育后让学生做了如下的一段翻译填空(中文版略)。其中画线部分为文中重点词块,黑体部分为语篇标志词。

     Nick, born in Australia, has no arms and no legs. In other words, he is a severely disabled man. However, he is very outgoing and has learned to adapt to his disability. Every time he is made fun of by the others he ignores them and accepts himself for who he is. Being disabled never makes him annoyed and never does he allow himself to sit around feeling sorry for himself. To make every day worthwhile, he takes part in a variety of activities, like horsing, fishing, boating and diving. In addition, he travels around the world, giving people great encouragement to live a rich and fulfilling life as well as showing his gratitude to this world. In many ways, his disabilities are beneficial to his development.

  All in all, his experience is a perfect explanation to the saying that having a disability does not mean your life is not satisfying.    Remember his advice: accept yourself as you are and be grateful to the world.

(三)联系生活,社会实际,进行课本文本相似话题文本的仿写,在语篇中体验、运用词块

    NSEFC教材必修四Unit 5 Theme park一课的词汇教学中,笔者结合了当时舟山第13届国际沙雕节的情况,编写了下述文本,让学生运用已学词块进行填空。

    The 13th International Sand Sculpture of Zhoushan proves to be a great success. _____________ activities are held.

    Visitors___________various Disney sand sculptures which _____________ many lively characters in Disney cartoon films. When people _________ the festival park, they seem to be entering _________. There are many children visitors who are ________happy to visit the park. Some of them say this trip helps to make their dream of ___________ the Disney World Resort __________.

    However, this festival has _______ artistic sand sculpture works. It is also ______its grand musical concert at the opening ceremony and other related carnival activities.

   With all these attractions, _________ the 13th festival has brought so many visitors there.

(参考答案:A variety of/various can, have fun exploring , are modelled after , wander through, a world of fantasy/a magical world, more than, experiencing, come true, more than, famous for, no wonder)

    又如上文所提到过的NSEFC教材选修6 Unit 5 Using language,模仿课本对天池的描绘,给杭州写宣传页,也是在这一灵感的指导下所产生的。

四)立足文本高于文本(浦丽红等,2012),对课文文本进行续写

    有些文本本身提出了一个开放性问题,供学生思考。如NSEFC教材必修一Unit 2 The road to modern English一课中,文本就在最后提出了汉语是否会在未来取代英语。因此,我们在教学设计中,就可以顺着这条线索,续写一个段落。例如下述一个学生现场的段落(有修改):Chinese in the future will take the place of English. Here are some reasons. To begin with, language development is based on economic development. As China is becoming increasingly powerful, it will eventually influence the language development. Next, with more and more Chinese people moving to all parts of the world, they will bring their own language there. In addition, many foreigners are doing business with Chinese, so they need to learn Chinese well. 段落虽短,却也体现了该生运用所学词块进行续写,并且很好地把握了句子之间层次的切换。

五)以培养学生应用文体写作能力为契机,进行新语篇的编写

    有时我们也可以根据课文文本的语用功能,提供相对应的应用文写作的文本编写。如NSEFC教材选修七Unit 1,Using language 部分A Letter To An Architect

的教学中,笔者先让学生找出提建议的句式I hope you will not mind me writing to ask …/I wonder if ... /It would be handy to have lifts…/I’d like to suggest that…  (should ) do/It would be more convenient to …./If …I hope my suggestions will …等。然后布置了以下写作任务,给超市经理写封建议信,使轮椅客人更便利。

Dear Mr Smith,

    I am writing to ask you to consider the matter of easy use of the supermarket by people in wheelchairs.______________, I would like you to consider the following things:

    ①_______________, I wonder if you can make the passages in the supermarket wide enough______________________________________________.②________, it would be convenient to have many lifts,___________________________________

.③__________,_________________,I’d like to suggest that the shelves should not be designed too high. ④___________, if the parking area is close to the entrance or the exit to the supermarket, it is easier for the disabled to go to the supermarket in comfort.

    Thank you for reading my letter. __________________________________

                                                       Yours sincerely,

                                                       Julia

(参考答案:In particular, first of all, so that it will allow wheelchairs to pass through, Also, which enables the disabled to have easy access to different parts of the supermarket, Besides, to allow the disabled, those in the wheelchairs in particular, to reach the goods on the shelves easily, Meanwhile, I hope you will consider my suggestions/I hope you will take my suggestion into serious consideration. (I would be very happy if my suggestions could be considered.))

 

 

四 结束语

    词汇教学是高中英语教学的生命线。教师必须要转化观念,重视学生词块记忆的落实。同时,要把词块放在合适的语境中,让学生在体验中学会应用,在欣赏的基础上进行内化,切不可机械记忆,死记硬背,即使背出来了,效果也不会持久。此外,教师本身要更多地学习,更新自己的知识体系,不断思考,探索,为学生创设出生动活泼的语境,让学生感觉学词汇不枯燥,不累人。

 

 

 

 

 

 

参考文献:

1. 董越君,2011,高中英语阅读课词汇教学教学初探 [J] 中小学外语教学, 10,

   29-34

2. 浦丽红,曹晓红,2012,以语篇情境为载体,提高词汇教学的有效性 [J] 中

  小学英语教学与研究, 2, 19-22

3. 陈凤梅,2011, 利用主课文进行高中英语语言知识教学的有效途径 [J] 中小

  学外语教学,12,6-13

4. 赖朝晖,2011, 例析高中英语阅读教学中语言运用能力的培养 [J] 中小学外

  语教学,4, 27-32

5. 教育部,2003,普通高中英语课程标准(实验)[M] 北京:人民教育出版社

6. 外语教学与研究出版社,2005.普通高中课程标准实验教科书 必修一至选修八

   北京:外语教学与研究出版社

7. 张立英,徐勇.以词块为主的词汇教学[J].Sino-US English Teaching, 2007(4).

 

20129月市教研室二等奖)

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